Emily C. Lawler
Department of Public Administration and Policy
University of Georgia
355 S. Jackson Street
Atens, GA 30602
Institutional Affiliation: University of Georgia
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|January 2017||Direct and Spillover Effects of Middle School Vaccination Requirements|
with : w23107
We study the direct and spillover effects of state requirements that middle school youths obtain a tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster prior to middle school entry. These mandates increased vaccine take-up by 29 percent and reduced pertussis (whooping cough) incidence in the population by a much larger 53 percent due to herd immunity effects. We also document cross-vaccine spillovers: the mandates increased adolescent vaccination for meningococcal disease and human papillomavirus (which is responsible for 98 percent of cervical cancers) by 8-34 percent, with particularly large effects for children from low SES households.
Published: Christopher S. Carpenter & Emily C. Lawler, 2019. "Direct and Spillover Effects of Middle School Vaccination Requirements," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol 11(1), pages 95-125.