Richard Baldwin

Pavillard 6
CH-1009 Pully
Tel: 41-22-908-5900
Fax: 41-21-733-3049

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
NBER Program Affiliations: IFM , ITI
NBER Affiliation: Research Associate
Institutional Affiliations: Graduate Institute, Geneva and CEPR

NBER Working Papers and Publications

February 2020Globotics and Development: When Manufacturing is Jobless and Services are Tradable
with Rikard Forslid: w26731
July 2018GVC Journeys: Industrialisation and Deindustrialisation in the Age of the Second Unbundling
with Toshihiro Okubo
in Globalization and Welfare Impacts of International Trade, Shin-ichi Fukuda, Takeo Hoshi, and Fukunari Kimura, organizers
December 2013Trade and Industrialization after Globalization's Second Unbundling: How Building and Joining a Supply Chain Are Different and Why It Matters
in Globalization in an Age of Crisis: Multilateral Economic Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century, Robert C. Feenstra and Alan M. Taylor, editors
April 2013Supply-Chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses
with Javier Lopez-Gonzalez: w18957

Published: Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November. citation courtesy of

May 2012Networked FDI: Sales and Sourcing Patterns of Japanese Foreign Affiliates
with Toshihiro Okubo: w18083

Published: Richard Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2014. "Networked FDI: Sales and Sourcing Patterns of Japanese Foreign Affiliates," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(8), pages 1051-1080, 08. citation courtesy of

December 2011Trade And Industrialisation After Globalisation's 2nd Unbundling: How Building And Joining A Supply Chain Are Different And Why It Matters
January 2011International Trade, Offshoring and Heterogeneous Firms
with Toshihiro Okubo: w16660

Published: Richard E. Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2014. "International Trade, Offshoring and Heterogeneous Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 59-72, 02. citation courtesy of

Gravity Chains: Estimating Bilateral Trade Flows When Parts And Components Trade Is Important
with Daria Taglioni: w16672

Published: Daria Taglioni & Richard Baldwin, 2014. "Gravity chains: Estimating bilateral trade flows when parts and components trade is important," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(2), pages 61-82, November. citation courtesy of

December 2010Spiders and snakes: offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy
with Anthony Venables: w16611

Published: Baldwin, Richard & Venables, Anthony J., 2013. "Spiders and snakes: Offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 245-254. citation courtesy of

Unilateral Tariff Liberalisation

Published: “Unilateral tariff liberalisation”, in The International Economy , Journal of The Japan Society of. International Economics, No.14, pp 10-43. 2010. Also NBER WP No. 16600, 2010.

June 2010Are Free Trade Agreements Contagious?
with Dany Jaimovich: w16084

Published: “Are Free Trade Agreements Contagious?”, with Dany Jaimovich, Journal of International Economics, Volume 88, Issue 1, September 2012, Pages 1–16. citation courtesy of

April 2010Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An Integrating Framework
with Frédéric Robert-Nicoud: w15882

Published: Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2014. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 51-62. citation courtesy of

June 2009Tax reform, delocation and heterogeneous firms
with Toshihiro Okubo: w15109

Published: Richard Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2009. "Tax Reform, Delocation, and Heterogeneous Firms," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 111(4), pages 741-764, December. citation courtesy of

September 2008Quality competition versus price competition goods: An empirical classification
with Tadashi Ito: w14305

Published: E. Baldwin, Richard & Ito, Tadashi, 2011. "Quality Competition Versus Price Competition Goods: An Empirical Classification," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 26, pages 110-135. citation courtesy of

June 2008Big-Think Regionalism: A Critical Survey

Published: in Regional Rules in the Global Trading System. Estevadeordal, Suominen, Teh (Editors) pp 17-95

July 2007Zeros, Quality and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence
with James Harrigan: w13214

Published: Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2011. "Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 60-88, May. citation courtesy of

March 2007Offshoring: General Equilibrium Effects on Wages, Production and Trade
with Frederic Robert-Nicoud: w12991
November 2006Euros and Zeros: The Common Currency Effect on Trade in New Goods
with Virginia Di Nino: w12673
October 2006Multilateralising Regionalism: Spaghetti Bowls as Building Blocs on the Path to Global Free Trade

Published: Richard E. Baldwin, 2006. "Multilateralising Regionalism: Spaghetti Bowls as Building Blocs on the Path to Global Free Trade," The World Economy, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(11), pages 1451-1518, November. citation courtesy of

September 2006Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations
with Daria Taglioni: w12516

Published: "Trade effects of the euro: A comparison of estimators”, with Daria Taglioni, Journal of Economic Integration, 22(4), December, pp 780–818. 2007. Circulated as “Gravity for dummies and dummies for gravity equations” CEPR DP5850, and NBER WP 12516. 2007.

May 2006Trade Liberalization with Heterogenous Firms
with Rikard Forslid: w12192

Published: Richard E. Baldwin & Rikard Forslid, 2010. "Trade Liberalization with Heterogeneous Firms," Review of Development Economics, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 161-176, 05. citation courtesy of

October 2005Heterogeneous Firms, Agglomeration and Economic Geography: Spatial Selection and Sorting
with Toshihiro Okubo: w11650

Published: Richard E. Baldwin & Toshihiro Okubo, 2006. "Heterogeneous firms, agglomeration and economic geography: spatial selection and sorting," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(3), pages 323-346, June. citation courtesy of

July 2005Heterogeneous Firms and Trade: Testable and Untestable Properties of the Melitz Model
August 2004The Impact of Trade on Intraindustry Reallocation and Aggregate Industry Productivity: A Comment
with Frederic Robert-Nicoud: w10718
October 2002Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization
with Paul Krugman: w9290


January 2002Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers
with Frederic Robert-Nicoud: w8756

Published: Richard E. Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2007. "Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(5), pages 1064-1093, 09. citation courtesy of

February 1999The Core-Periphery Model with Forward-Looking Expectations

Published: Baldwin, Richard E. "Core-Periphery Model With Forward-Looking Expectations," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2001, v31(1,Feb), 21-49.

January 1999The Core-Periphery Model and Endogenous Growth: Stabilising and De-Stabilising Integration
with Rikard Forslid: w6899

Published: Baldwin, Richard E. and Rikard Forslid. "The Core-Periphery Model And Endogenous Growth: Stabilizing And Destabilizing Integration," Economica, 2000, v67(267,Aug), 307-324.

Two Waves of Globalisation: Superficial Similarities, Fundamental Differences
with Philippe Martin: w6904

Published: Globalisation and Labour, J.C.B. Mohr for Kiel Institute of World Economics Siebert, H., ed., Tubingen, 1999.

March 1998Global Income Divergence, Trade and Industrializatiion: The Geography of Growth Take-Offs
with Philippe Martin, Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano: w6458

Published: Baldwin, Richard E., Philippe Martin and Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano. "Global Income Divergence, Trade, And Industrialization: The Geography Of Growth Take-Offs," Journal of Economic Growth, 2001, v6(1,Mar), 5-37. citation courtesy of

Agglomeration and Endogenous Capital

Published: European Economic Review, Vol.43, no.2 (1999): 253-280. citation courtesy of

Incremental Trade and Endogenous Growth: A q-Theory Approach
with Rikard Forslid: w6477

Published: Baldwin, Richard E. and Rikard Forslid. "Incremental Trade Policy And Endogenous Growth," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 1999, v23(5-6,Apr), 797-822.

Multiproduct Multinationals and Reciprocal FDI Dumping
with Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano: w6483

Published: Baldwin, Richard and Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano. "Multiproduct Multinationals And Reciprocal," Journal of International Economics, 2001, v54(2,Aug), 429-448. citation courtesy of

May 1996Trade-Induced Investment-led Growth
with Elena Seghezza: w5582

Published: Seghezza, Elena & Baldwin, Richard E., 2008. "Testing for Trade-Induced Investment-Led Growth," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio di Genova, vol. 61(2-3), pages 507-537.

April 1996Trade Liberalization and Endogenous Growth: A q-Theory Approach
with Rikard Forslid: w5549

Published: "Trade liberalisation and endogenous growth: A q-theory approach," Journal of International Economics, Vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 497-517, April 2000 citation courtesy of

January 1996Testing for Trade-Induced Investment-Led Growth
with Elena Seghezza: w5416

Published: Seghezza, Elena & Baldwin, Richard E., 2008. "Testing for Trade-Induced Investment-Led Growth," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio di Genova, vol. 61(2-3), pages 507-537. citation courtesy of

November 1995Investment Creation and Investment Diversion: Simulation Analysis of theSingle Market Programme
with Rikard Forslid, Jan Haaland: w5364
September 1993A Domino Theory of Regionalism

Published: Expanding European Regionalism: The EU's New Members, Baldwin, R., P. Haaparanta and J. Kiander (eds.), Cambridge University Press: 1995.

April 1992On the Growth Effects of Import Competition
April 1990Re-Interpreting the Failure of Foreign Exchange Market Efficiency Tests:Small Transaction Costs, Big Hysteresis Bands
November 1989Measuring 1992's Medium-Term Dynamic Effects

Published: "On the Measurement od Dynamic Effects of Integration", Empirica, Vol. 20,pp 129-145, 1993.

October 1989Measureable Dynamic Gains from Trade

Published: Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 100, issue 1, pp. 162-174, 1992. citation courtesy of

September 1989The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem Reconsidered: An Example of Ricardian Dynamic Trade Effects
The Growth Effects of 1992

Published: Economic Policy, No. 9, pp. 1-42, (1989).

March 1989Sunk-Cost Hysteresis
1989Exchange Rate Hysteresis: The Real Effects of Large vs Small Policy Misalignments
with Richard Lyons: w2828

Published: "Exchange Rate Hyteresis: Large nersus Small Policy Misalignments" European Economic Review, Jan 1994, vol 38, pp 1-22

August 1988The Mutual Amplification Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility and Unresponsive Trade Prices
with Richard K. Lyons: w2677

Published: "The Mutual Amplification Effect of Unresponsive Trade Prices and Exchange Rate Volatility." Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 1-20, Spring 1991

July 1988Factor Market Barriers are Trade Barriers: Gains From Trade in 1992

Published: European Economic Review, 1989.

March 1988Hysteresis In Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect

Published: Baldwin, Richard. "Hysteresis In Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," from American Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp. 773-785. September 1988. citation courtesy of

1988Some Empirical Evidence on Hysteresis in Aggregate US Import Prices


  • Baldwin, Richard E. "Hysteresis In Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review, 1988, v78(4), 773-785.
  • Gerlach, Stephan and Peter Petri (eds.) The Economics of the Dollar Cycle. MIT Press, 1990.

Industrial Policy and International Competition in Wide-Bodied Jet Aircraft
with Paul Krugman
in Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, Robert E. Baldwin, editor
September 1986Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchage Rate Shocks
with Paul R. Krugman: w2017

Published: The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 104, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 635-654 citation courtesy of

June 1986Market Access and International Competition: A Simulation Study of 16K Random Access Memories
with Paul Krugman: w1936

Published: in Empirical Methods for International Trade, (ed)R. Feenstra. MIT Press, 1987.

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